Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. Surname 1 Microorganisms are sensitive to abrupt environmental changes. 2.1. Of particular interest are the hyperthermophiles, which are defined as microorganisms able to grow at 90°C and above. A fundamental prerequisite for life on earth is the ability of living organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Abstract. Match the following adaptation, habitat characteristic, and distribution characteristic with the limiting … Structural adaptations. Deep-sea microorganisms have specially adapted features that enable them to live and grow in this extreme environment. Such conditions are inhospitable for other organisms and they do not thrive in such habitat. The deep-sea environment is characterized by high pressure and low temperature but in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents regions of extremely high temperature exist. Organisms which inhabit extreme environmental conditions are called extreme lovers or Extremophiles. This makes them invaluable tools for research: they can teach us how life has evolved and how we survive. The organisms living in extreme cold often experience long winters and short summers. Although there is a potential abundance of chemical energy, deep-sea hydrothermal communities have had to adapt to extreme conditions to exploit this resource. Microbes have the ability to survive in extremely hot and cold conditions. Organisms have the ability to adapt to specific conditions within their environments through the biological process of variation, which enhance organisms' chances of survival. The diversity of organisms that is found in any particular area is largely determined by the limiting abiotic factors of that region. Microorganisms in Extreme Environmental Conditions In this section we explore the diversity of extremophilic microbes, their mechanisms of adaptation, and examples of extreme environmental conditions where they are found. Disruption of this critical linkages leads to the destruction of cellular … Although scientists discussed adaptation prior to the 1800s, it was not until then that Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace developed the theory of natural selection.. Wallace believed that the evolution of organisms … Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles In evolutionary theory, adaptation is the biological mechanism by which organisms adjust to new environments or to changes in their current environment. Existence in an extreme environment … In extreme cold, moisture is limited and the environment is dry as there is low precipitation. Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. Variation is essentially a form of natural selection that takes place during long periods of time. Extreme conditions of pH, pressure, salinity, drought and temperature have a potential to disrupt fundamental interactions that keep biomolecules intact and functional. Adaptations are many and varied but they are generally grouped into 3 main categories: structural, physiological and behavioural. Organisms are adapted to the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Structural (or morphological) adaptations … The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. 2. Generally, microorganisms are known to be Extremophilic; both Archaebacteria and Eubacteria and their viruses … Marine organisms have adapted to the great diversity of habitats and distinctive environmental conditions in the marine environment. 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